The female reproductive system has two almonds like ovaries. These ovaries have various functions, one of which is to release female sex hormones. These hormones are estrogen, LH and progesterone. Now a balance of sex hormones is very important, because any disturbances in these levels result in a number of health disorders. When the levels of female sex hormones increase and result in formations of multiple cysts in the ovaries the condition is known as poly-cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
PCOS is a major reason for infertility in women and also results in number of other health conditions. What we need to understand here is these cysts are not harmful, but they result in hormonal imbalances which lead to various health issues. These include excess of menstrual problems like increased menstrual flow or amenorrhea, hair on face belly and back (usually the male-pattern of hair growth), hair fall from the scalp, excessive acne, harshness of voice (due to release of male hormones like androgen), development of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, weight gain, thyroid problems etc. The main cause of developing PCOS is still not properly known, however some of the possible causes are listed below.
Here Are The Main Cause Of Developing PCOS :
Heredity Or Genetic Factors
Polycystic ovarian syndrome usually runs in families. There are some genes which get transferred from the parents. So if your mother or even your sister is suffering from PCOS there are high chances you will get it. If not PCOS, your ovaries will show formation of cysts at some point of time.
Insulin resistance is a condition where the body is unable to utilise the insulin present in body which eventually leads to diabetes. This condition results in increased blood sugar and obesity. These factors are indirectly related to the development of PCOS as insulin resistance cause imbalance in hormonal levels, especially androgen level.
Some Type Of Inflammation
When there is presence of a long term or chronic type of inflammation in body and there is excessive release of white blood cells, PCOS might occur. The exact reason for this is not known.
Foetal Exposure To Male Hormones
Sex hormones released during foetal growth are very important for development. However exposure to certain male sex hormones in excess amount might result in PCOS development, some studies have said.
PCOS is known to lead to a number of other diseases; these are type 2 diabetes, High BP, increased cholesterol, infertility, sleep disorders, depression etc. In order to confirm presence of PCOS there is no specific diagnostic test available. However the diagnosis which is done includes primary physical check up, blood tests, a pelvic examination and sonography.
Let Us Now Discuss In Detail The Various Treatment Options Available For PCOS:
Increased weight increases symptoms of PCOS and is associated with development of other health disorders which happen due to PCOS. Therefore it is a mandate to reduce weight when PCOS is diagnosed. It is advisable that you engage yourself in cardio exercises as well as weight training.
Lifestyle Modification And Dietary Changes
Avoiding junk food and eating a balanced diet is very important for resolving and preventing polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Smoking is known to worsen PCOS and hence consumption of tobacco in any form must be strictly avoided. Also if you drink, consume alcohol in moderation and under control.
The main happening in polycystic ovarian syndrome is hormonal imbalance. When other measures like weight reduction, lifestyle modification etc. do not seem effective, hormonal therapy might be given. These hormonal drugs which are given also depend on the symptoms. Either a combination of estrogen and progestin are given to take care of irregular periods, acne, unwanted hair growth etc. In place of the original hormones, their synthetic form might also be used. Other hormone balancing pills include spironolactone which reduces levels of androgen (male hormone) which gives beneficial results with abnormal hair growth and acne. An anti-diabetic drug called metformin is also used to keep a check on increasing androgen levels. Some other hormonal therapies include clomiphene (improves fertility in women) and injections of LH and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
We saw the different treatment options available. It is important that the patient must maintain regular follow ups. With PCOS infertility is a major concern. You must discuss this with your doctor. In some cases, birth control pills are given to the patient to reduce ovulation and when the patient desires to become pregnant, gradually these drugs are stopped. Other than modifying lifestyle and taking medicines, it is equally important to stay stress free and stay relaxed.