Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the flow of blood on arteries. With each beat heart pumps the blood. There are two phases of the pumping; first is the actual beat when heart pumps out the blood and second when the heart relaxes.
Maximum pressure is exerted when the pumping of blood takes place and minimum when the heart relaxes. The measurement of blood pressure is done on these two scales. The minimum pressure exerted by the relaxing heart is called Diastolic and maximum when heart pumps the blood is called Systolic.
Ideal Limit of Pressure
The gap between Diastolic and systolic pressure is called the range. And there is ideal range specified for infant, Children and adults. In case of a new born baby the diastolic pressure is between 30-54.
By the time the infant is an year old the ideal limit of diastolic pressure rises to 48-64. In children it is considered healthy around 60 and for adults it is 70-80. People whose day is full of strenuous physical routine like athletes may show a little higher diastolic pressure which is normal.
Causes of Fluctuation
There are various reasons why the Diastolic pressure may fluctuate. Diastolic pressure rise with an increase in the physical activity like exercise and running. Likewise, heavy exercise can lead to heightened blood pressure. People suffering from hypertension also show varied fluctuation in the diastolic pressure since their arteries react more. Food that you eat has a lot of bearing on your diastolic pressure. Low level of fluids in the body and dehydration can also lead to lower Diastolic blood pressure.
Caffeine is another culprit which is present in coffee, increases the Diastolic pressure. Consumption of alcohol can also create havoc with the blood pressure. Use of drugs which includes prescription drugs like birth control pills, anti-inflammatory drug also interfere with the blood pressure. Nowadays high level of cholesterol is a major culprit behind the increase in issues with blood pressure. Some times hormonal imbalance can also cause the fluctuation in the blood pressure.
During the day there are mild regular ups and downs in the pressure in a range of about 25%. However, wide fluctuation in blood pressure can be very dangerous and at times, fatal. The common symptom of fluctuation in blood pressure is dizziness and headache. Normally, with a drop in pressure one can experience headache.
Low blood pressure causes drowsiness and dizziness. If the pressure is high, heaviness in chest is also a symptom that many report. Fainting and blackouts also happen when the pressure rises or drops suddenly. Numbness in limbs and pain along the shoulders is also a common symptom.
Treatment & Remedies And Precautions
If the fluctuation is attributable to hormonal imbalance then the hormonal therapy will be carried out to restore the hormonal balance of the body. If the blood pressure suddenly drops, have a glass of water with sugar and salt thoroughly mixed, this will give instant relief. One clove of garlic with warm water consumed on empty stomach every morning breaks down the cholesterol and hence the blood pressure.
Elevate your head while sleeping. Do not get up immediately after a long nap. Medicines like fludrocortisone and midodrine are prescribed in case of low blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers and beta blockers and digoxin is found helpful in case of high blood pressure.