Under hypotension or low blood pressure, the blood is able to deliver less oxygen and nutrients to different vital organs of the body like heart, brain and kidney. As a result these organs could not function properly or can be temporarily or permanently damaged. In contrast to high blood pressure, low blood pressure is majorily defined by its symptoms and not by blood pressure readings.Some may have blood pressures of 90/50 but still no symptoms of hypotension whereas few having higher readings may suddenly show symptoms of low blood pressure if the pressure drops to 100/60.
Signs and Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure
Lightheadedness and Dizziness
The patient may complain of being lightheaded with change in vision, breathlessness, losing consciousness while trying to stand up from sitting or trying to sit from lying position. This is called as orthostatic hypotension that normally lasts for short span but still needs medical attention as it could be severe too.
Low blood pressure is seen to occur most with use of blood pressure medications or antidepressants that may impair the neural framework of blood vessels in the legs.So leg muscles do not show proper contraction on rising and blood gets drained in the legs leading to brain and heart deprivation of the blood and the cause of hypotension.
Chest Pain with Irregular Heart Beat
With insufficient pressure to deliver blood to coronary arteries of heart, person could experience severe chest pains and when load on heart increases for long durations; it may lead to a heart attack.
In absence of sufficient blood to kidneys, the elimination of wastes and toxics from the body like urea, creatinine by kidneys get hindered resulting in consistent high fevers, passage of maroon or black colored stools.
Some show symptomatic low pressure because of less fluid content within the body, referred as hypovelmia. It may be caused by dehydration due to sweating after exercise, lower oral intake of fluids or intake of diuretics.In high blood pressure patients, diuretics are commonly used to lower down the pressure but normally also it is used in form of caffeine.
With continued low blood pressure, complete damage of vital organs occurs, leading to a life threatening condition, ‘shock’. This results from the failure of circulatory system to manage adequate blood flow in the body. The sudden drop in blood flow is a critical condition and needs emergency care by providing fluids through mouth or intravenously, and need to keep the patient warm.
Low blood pressure affects large number of people all over the world. But normally, people do not realize the situation and dismiss the symptoms of dizziness or illness on a lighter note. Never ignore any signs or symptoms that body show, it may be an issue of heart, brain or endocrine disorders. Once symptoms of low blood pressure are being experienced, manage it properly as the first organ to be effected is the brain. With lack of proper care and treatment, it could lead to brain damage.