Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers among women after breast and cervical cancer. The presence of cancerous cells and tumours in the ovaries indicate the presence of ovarian cancer. Early diagnosis offers a good prognosis for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The prognosis becomes difficult once you progress into an advanced stage of the cancer. In the early stages, the cancer can be treated quite effectively. Let us see the different stages of ovarian cancer.
The Different Stages Of Ovarian Cancer
The international federation of gynaecology has used a number system to stage ovarian cancer. There are essentially four stages of ovarian cancer. Let us examine them.
In this stage the cancer is limited or occurs in only one ovary.
In this the cancer has spread or is found in both the ovaries.
In this stage the cancer is found inside both the ovaries. The cancer has also spread on the surface of one or both the ovaries. There is also a possibility of the cancer spreading to the other parts of the uterus, abdominal lining or anywhere outside the ovary. The tumour may have become large or is about to rupture, making the condition precarious for the woman.
In this stage, the cancer has definitely spread to other parts of the body outside the ovaries.
The cancer is found in other parts of the uterus like the endometrial lining. It could also occur in the fallopian tubes.
In this stage, the cancer normally spreads outside the pelvic region to the urinary bladder, the colon or the rectum.
In stage IIC, the cancer has not only spread to the above organs but has also spread to the abdominal cavity and the lining of the abdomen. At this stage, the cancer becomes more difficult to treat due to metastasis.
Stage III cancer is found to originate from the ovaries, spreads to the endometrium, uterus, fallopian tubes and outside the pelvic region. The cancer also invades the various organs of the abdomen like stomach, intestines and the peritoneum. Cancer of the lymph nodes may also be diagnosed at this time.
Stage IV Cancer
This is by far the most advanced stage of cancer. In this stage, the cancer has metastasized to other organs like the liver, lungs and the blood stream. The passage of cancerous cells through the blood stream makes it very easy for the cancer to now invade the other parts of the body. The more widespread the cancer, the more difficult it is to treat.
Staging of ovarian cancer makes it easy to make a well-informed decision and choice about the treatment modality that is available. Stage 1 cancer of ovaries offers a good prognosis with a 92% survival rate over a period of 5 years. However, the chances of the cancer being diagnosed this early are very rare as women are not significantly aware of the cancer and there are no accompanying symptoms.