Diabetes mellitus type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to non-responsiveness of the target receptors for insulin. When these receptors do not respond to insulin, the hormone is then unable to carry out its functions properly although it is being actively produced in the body.
Hence, a condition known as insulin resistance develops. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by increased blood glucose level and high blood pressure. The hormone insulin functions in the uptake of glucose by the body cells. So when there is a lack of insulin functioning, it is quite obvious that glucose level will actively build up in blood.
The early symptoms of diabetes include increased hunger, increased frequency of urination and increased thirst. When the body cells are not capable of utilizing glucose for energy, they then start depleting the body fat for energy source and this can lead to weight loss in the later stages of this disease.
Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes can have some dangerous consequences such as peripheral neuropathy, kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, it is important to treat diabetes in its early stages itself. Some of the treatments for type 2 diabetes are as under.
The best treatment for diabetes type 2 as well as for type 1 is its management from the initial stages of its occurrence. Management of diabetes refers to the control of this disease which can be done in the following ways.
Control Blood Glucose Levels
The first and the foremost thing that comes in the management of diabetes is the control of glucose levels in the blood. Keep a daily check of your blood sugar level if you are a diabetic person.
Control Blood Pressure
Another important thing is maintaining the blood pressure within normal limits. Diabetes patients must check for their blood pressure daily and keep it within the frame of 120/90 mm Hg.
A diabetic patient must possess a healthy lifestyle which includes a healthy and non-sugar containing diet intake, regular exercises and giving up of unhealthy habits such as smoking and alcohol.
Management and control forms an important part of treatment of type 2 diabetes but this may not be enough. Certain anti-diabetic medicines must also be taken as a part of treatment. These drugs are meant to lower the glucose levels in blood.
Biguanides function in decreasing glucose output from liver and encourage glucose up take by the periphery. But it must be used with caution by patients with an impaired kidney or liver function.
Metformin, a type of biguanide, is being used widely for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and is the first line medicine given for its treatment.
Themedicines belonging to this family of drugs help in stimulating the release of insulin by the pancreatic cells and help this hormone in functioning more effectively. Sulphonylureas are suitable for type 2 diabetes only. These drugs may cause weight gain.
They are also known as glitazones. This group of drugs reduces insulin resistance and aids in enhancing the function of insulin by improving insulin sensitivity.
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