Most of the women get their periods regularly with no major changes in their start time and stop time and cycle of every month. But when some changes are observed at the start time, end time and the change in the cycle of menstruation then it leads to lots of inconvenience to them which is known as menstrual disorder.
In simple words, a menstrual disorder is a disruptive state in which the women’s menstrual cycle becomes irregular. It includes heavy bleeding, missed periods and uncontrollable mood swings which obstruct the normal functions of their daily life.
The menstrual period is a part of the menstrual cycle that shows the changes in the body parts of the female like uterus, ovaries, vagina and breasts. Normally a menstrual cycle comes after every 28 days and it goes on for five to seven days on an average. If you are having heavy bleeding, missed periods and uncontrollable mood swings then you are suffering from menstrual disorders. The menstrual disorder is classified into the following types:
Common Types of Menstrual Disorders
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB): Abnormal uterine bleeding disorder is of three types- heavy menstrual bleeding, no menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea) and bleeding between the two periods (metrorrhagia) .
Dysmenorrhea: It causes a lot of pain in the menstrual periods.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Some physical and emotional symptoms occur before the arrival of the menstrual cycle.
Premenstrual dysphonic disorder (PMDD): Some more severe symptoms like irritation and stress occurs in this disorder.
Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
Heavy menstrual bleeding occurs in 20% of the females which makes them difficult to live their normal life due to heavy blood flow. You can observe this problem if you have to change your sanitary pad every hour. This problem is more common when you enter your teens or approaching menopause. This problem is caused by an imbalance in the hormones, any kind of abnormalities in the uterus and medical condition like blood clotting, the use of anticoagulant drugs or thyroid problems.
In this problem, the menstrual cycle stops coming. Amenorrhea is normal if it happens before adolescence, after menopause , during pregnancy or breastfeeding stage. If you are missing your periods because of any other reason than these then medical consultation is required. It is of two kinds:
If a female had reached the age of 16 and haven’t started menstruating then it can be due to any kind of problem in endocrine system which helps to regulate the hormones.
It can be due to excessive physical activity or medicine or eating disorder. Other medical situations that can lead to this problem are hypothalamus or genetic issues like a delay in the maturation process of the pituitary glands.
If your periods stop coming for a period of three months then that is secondary amenorrhea which is caused due to changes in the estrogen level, excessive stress, loss of weight or prolonged illness.
Severe Menstrual Cramps (dysmenorrhea)
Some of the women experience cramps before or during their periods. If these cramps are painful then you are suffering from a problem known as dysmenorrhea. This type of pain arises due to the uterine contractions provoked by the prostaglandins and production of the hormones like substances by the uterine walls. Sometimes the pain got aggravated as the prostaglandins increases the contractions in the intestine leading to diarrhea.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
This term explains the various types of physical and physiological symptoms that occur in a menstrual cycle. Three out of ten women suffers from these symptoms which disrupts the normal functioning of life. These premenstrual syndrome symptoms are severe. Some of the physical symptoms are bloating, swelling and pain in the breasts, constipation, headaches and helpless while the emotional symptoms include anger, stress, frequent changes in mood and feeling depressed.
These symptoms occur five to seven days before the arrival of menstruation cycle and ends as soon as the periods start. This syndrome occurs due to the change in the female hormones and effect of these hormones on the chemical in the brain known as serotonin. The more sensitive females face this syndrome. This syndrome is a genetic disorder and more common after pregnancy.
This syndrome is more severe than the premenstrual syndrome. The difference between two of them can be explained by the comparison between as simple headache and migraine headache. 8% of the women suffer from this problem. Some of the common symptoms of this disorder are excessive irritation, stress and frequent changes in mood. The females having a history of genetic disorders, postpartum depression and mood swings are more prone to this disorder. These symptoms subside when the menstruation starts.